Also known as Synopsis, this is a brief summary describing the purpose and content of a research paper, conference report, poster, or thesis and usually appears before the main text.

Academic editing

The process of improving the language, style, structure, and format of an academic manuscript prior to publication. It may include proofreading, copy editing, and/or content editing. Enago offers Academic editing services to make manuscripts publication ready.

Academic proofreaders

They are the language experts with substantial experience in proofreading academic documents. Academic proofreading entails reviewing a manuscript for grammar, punctuation, style and consistency.

Academic resources

All comprehensive and up-to-date resources offered to researchers, publishers, editors and students to enhance their knowledge of research and publication process.

Academic translation

A service designed for non-native English academicians to ensure that language as well as subject-matter nuances are given consideration while translating their documents to English.

Academic writing

A writing style targeted for a specialized and informed audience. Academic texts are usually well-organized, concise, and written in a formal/impersonal tone.

AMA (American Medical Association)

The largest medical association in the United States which was founded in 1847 and focuses on improving the health care system for patients and physicians.

AMA style guide

A style and ethics manual published by the American Medical Association and Oxford University Press to support authors and editors involved in medical and scientific publishing.

APA (American Psychological Association)

A major professional and scientific association of psychologists in the United States which focuses on promoting and advancing psychological knowledge to benefit society.

APA style guide

A style and ethics manual published by the American Psychological Association to support authors and editors working in the field of social and behavioral sciences.


Also known as Manuscript or Paper, this is a document describing a new research finding, work, or subject. It is usually peer-reviewed prior to publication.


All the images, figures, and/or photos used to illustrate a publication.

Artwork editing

This service offered by Enago, ensures that the artwork in final submission adheres to the journal requirements. It includes editing image resolution, colors, dimensions, file size and format, tables, text and font, image panels, line weights, bit depth, and compression.

Author services

All the services offered by Enago to researchers for improving the overall quality of their submissions and achieve publication success come under Author services.


The identity of the person(s) involved in the research and writing a manuscript. Author contributions in a research paper include research design, data collection and analysis, and manuscript drafting.


BELS (Board of Editors in the Life Sciences)

An organization that evaluates and certifies the competence of manuscript editors in the life sciences according to international standards. It was founded in 1991 and offers certification examinations several times per year.

BELS certification

A verification of the proficiency of manuscript editors offered by the Board of Editors in the Life Sciences (BELS). To receive certification, applicants must have a degree from an accredited institution, at least 2 years of editing experience in the life sciences, and pass a certification exam.


Also known as References or Literature Cited, this is a list of the sources (articles, books, and web pages) used to prepare a research/academic manuscript. This list is normally reported at the end of the document.

Book editing services

It involves experienced book editors providing relevant suggestions to the authors for improving the overall quality of their content. Based on author requirements, book editing may include pre-editing consultation, copy editing, grammar check and post-editing support.


Case report

A detailed description of the symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment of a medical problem experienced by one or more patients.

Certificate of editing (COE)

This certificate is a proof that the paper has been reviewed by professional native English-speaking experts. Enago offers this certificate with all its editing services.


A reference to a source (article, book, and/or web page) used during the preparation of a manuscript.

CMOS (The Chicago Manual of Style)

A comprehensive style guide published by the University of Chicago Press spanning several topics including manuscript preparation, American English grammar, and documentation.


One of the main parts of an academic/research manuscript. It is included at the end of the paper and summarizes the main ideas as well as the importance and implications of the research.

Conference proceeding

A publication including a collection of academic papers from a particular conference.

Conflict of interest

A situation in which financial, personal, legal, or professional relationships may influence a person's actions or decisions.

COPE (Committee on Publication Ethics)

A nonprofit organization that helps editors and publishers handle all types of ethical issues including research and publication misconduct.

Copy editing

Enago offers Copy editing service to improve the quality of a manuscript for publication on a technical level. It usually involves corrections related to syntax, spelling, grammar, punctuation, and consistency.

Corresponding author

The main contact person for any queries and comments related to a particular academic/research paper which has been submitted to a journal. The corresponding author is also responsible for communicating with the journal and for coordinating the communication between co-authors.


(Plural: Corrigenda): A correction of a published manuscript that refers to an error made by the author(s).

Cover letter

A letter addressed to the Editor-in-Chief of a journal which introduces the manuscript and summarizes the research findings. The cover letter also explains how the manuscript fits the scope of the journal.



One of the main parts of an academic/research manuscript which explains the meaning, significance, and limitations of the results.


An extended piece of writing on a specialized research/subject which is usually required to achieve an academic degree.

Dissertation editing services

A set of services offered by Enago which are designed for students to ensure that their papers meet the expected submission standards. Subject-matter experts review these papers to identify spelling, grammatical or typographical errors and offer advice on style, clarity, tone, structure and referencing.

Document editing services

It comprises of proofreading and English editing any technical report, presentation, or any other business document. Document editing service helps professionals to communicate effectively with a global audience.


eBook editing

It is the process of ensuring that eBook content is perfect for publication. eBook editing involves proofreading, grammar check, copy editing and suggestions for sentence formation from expert editors.

Edit unlimited

A value-added service exclusively offered by Enago under Copy Editing and Substantive Editing. Under this, authors can pay once and get their paper edited unlimited times until they are satisfied.


Also known as Content Editing, Developmental Editing, or Line Editing, this is the process of improving the content, language, and writing style in a document prior to publication.Enago offers editing services under Copy Editing and Substantive Editing.


(Plural: Errata): A correction of a published manuscript that refers to an error made by the journal/publisher.

ESL authors

They are the authors for whom English is a second language (ESL). While submitting their papers to international journals, ESL authors may find it challenging to express their ideas by choosing the right words and correct sentence formation.

ESL editing

It comprises of proofreading and editing content written by authors for whom English is a Second Language (ESL). Enago has a pool of experienced editors who are experts in ESL editing, these language experts ensure that the document has no grammar, punctuation, English usage and formatting errors.

Essay editing services

These services are designed to perfect grammar, punctuation, formatting and writing style for essays submitted as a part of academic projects or college and job applications.

Ethics committee

A board in charge of reviewing and monitoring proposals and studies involving human participants and/or their data to ensure that they comply with the ethical guidelines.



Any illustrations (graphics, images, or photos) included in a publication.


Remarks placed at the bottom of a page to provide additional comments referring to a particular text in the document.


Grammar check

The process of checking a document for errors in grammar such as article usage, spellings, tense, prepositions, pronouns, subject-verb agreement, adverbs and adjectives amongst others.



A bibliometric measure of the productivity and scientific impact of a researcher. Suggested by physicist Jorge E. Hirsch in 2005, it is defined as the number of papers (h) with a citation number ≥ h.



International Committee of Medical Journal Editors, a selected group of medical journal editors whose members meet annually to update its Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals

Impact factor

Also known as Journal Impact Factor, is commonly used to rank academic journals. It was introduced by Eugene Garfield and is calculated by dividing the number of citations in a given year by the total number of articles published in the two previous years. Journals with high impact factors are considered to have a very high reputation.


An acronym for Introduction, Methods, Results, and Discussion, this is a globally accepted scientific manuscript structure that is commonly used in research articles.

Institutional ranking

All institutions of higher education are ranked on the basis of their overall academic quality. A higher ranking signifies superior quality of education, making the institute desirable for many. An institute can witness a drastic improvement in their rankings by ensuring that a higher percentage of research from their scholars gets published in high-impact journals.

Instructions to authors

Also known as Author Guidelines, these are a set of requirements established by journals, to help the authors with the preparation and submission of manuscripts.


The first section in an article, thesis, or report where the research background is provided along with the purpose of the work and the adopted approach.



A periodical that publishes articles reporting on current research findings specific to a particular field.

Journal article editing

Editing and correcting grammatical errors in a scholarly research article which is relatively short and concise compared to a research manuscript.

Journal formatting service

It improves the overall presentation of the manuscript in terms of layout and style by ensuring that text, figures, tables, and references are all formatted as per the guidelines of the journal.

Journal guidelines

Every journal has a set of guidelines to which the authors are liable to comply before submitting their manuscripts to it. These include terms and conditions of the Journal and usually falls under the ‘Instructions to Authors’ section.

Journal selection

The process of finding and choosing an appropriate journal for a manuscript.

Journal selection service

Enago’s team of experts with their extensive experience in peer reviewing and editing match a manuscript with the most appropriate journal in the submitted research criteria. The experts will then suggest the author with top 5 journals best suited to their manuscript and preferences.

Journal submission

The process of submitting a manuscript to an academic journal where it is reviewed and subsequently considered for publication. Most publishers have electronic submission systems in place for manuscript submission.


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Language check

Enago's Language check service is a good choice for budget conscious authors who want one quick round of language and grammar check, and are looking to get published in SCI indexed journals. This service is recommended for native English-speaking authors or researchers looking to get published in low-impact factor journals.

Literature review

An overview of significant literature published on a topic. A survey of scholarly articles, books, and other sources (dissertations, conference proceedings) relevant to a particular research area or issue, providing a summary and critical evaluation of the research work.


Manuscript acceptance rate

Manuscript acceptance rate, also known as rejection rate, is the ratio of the number of articles submitted to the number of articles published. Higher the acceptance rate, better for the journals.

Manuscript draft

A preliminary version of an article reporting on research findings.

Manuscript editing

Professional English editors edit an author’s manuscript and make it publication ready according to the desired journal style-guide and standards by correcting grammar, formatting and citation errors.

Manuscript format

The manner in which the manuscript is arranged and presented in order to meet the requirements of the specified journal style or formatting.

Manuscript formatting

The process of improvising the presentation and style (fonts, margins, spacing, figure layout, reference list) of a manuscript to ensure that it meets the format specified by the target journal.

Manuscript preparation

The process of planning, writing, and organizing a piece of writing.

Manuscript rate card (MRC)

MRC’s are designed to help authors enhance the quality of their manuscript before submitting it to their target journal. Enago’s expert editors analyse all aspects of the content of the manuscript and recommend useful resources to help authors improve their manuscript and writing proficiency.

Manuscript submission

The process of sending a written work to a publisher for review and possible publication.

Manuscript word count

The total number of words in a manuscript. This value gives an estimate of the overall length of an article. Some journals have word-count limits for the articles they publish.

Medical editing services

Medical editing services are specifically designed to serve the needs of pharmaceutical, biotechnology, and medical technology companies as well as academicians worldwide.


The procedures and techniques applied in a research. The methods section in a manuscript describes how the research problem was studied; providing detailed information about the experimental techniques used.

MLA (Modern Language Association)

An organization based in the United states and founded in 1883 that promotes the study and teaching of languages, literature, and writing. The members meet annually and share their teaching experiences and findings with colleagues and discuss current trends.

MLA style guide

A style manual published by the Modern Language Association which offers guidance on writing scholarly manuscripts, documenting research, submitting manuscripts, and dealing with issues surrounding publication and also supports writers in the fields of science and humanities.


Non-native speaker

A person whose first language is different from the language being used.


Open access

Free, immediate, and unrestricted access to online publications, such as academic articles, books, and conference reports. Open access manuscripts can be published in two ways: in open access or hybrid journals ("gold" open access) or in pre-print or post-print archives and repositories ("green" open access).

Original article

Also known as Research Article, this is a scientific report of the results of original research and is written by the same researchers who did the study (not by somebody else who is reporting on it). Original articles are considered to be primary sources of newly discovered research findings.


Paper editing

A research paper requires extensive editing on the aspects of writing such as its structure, argument and subject clarity. Paper editing services are appropriate for research papers, reviews and grant applications.


Also known as Rephrasing or Rewording, this is the process of restating a written or spoken message or idea differently. It is usually done for simplicity and clarity.

Peer review

Evaluation of manuscripts by experts within the relevant field to assess the quality of research work before it is accepted for publication.Enago offers Pre-submission peer review by its expert reviewers with just a 7 days turnaround time.

Peer reviewer

Also known as Referee, this is usually an expert in the same scholarly field as that of the authors of a study (peer) who evaluates the quality, importance, and validity of the research work. Enago has a professional team of Phd qualified peer reviwers with extensive experience in peer-reviewing process.


The act of copying or borrowing another person's work or ideas and presenting them as one's own without crediting the original author. Enago offers two advanced plagiarism check platforms under its brand.

Post-submission editing

Post-submission editing, also largely called as Post-editorial support, is for authors with edited research papers to help them check their manuscript revisions. Enago offers Post-editorial support services which help improve a manuscript’s chances of journal acceptance.

Predatory journals

Low-quality journals that charge authors a publishing fee without offering the reviewing, editorial, and publishing services that are usually associated with journals.

Predatory publishers

Questionable publishers that use the open-access model for their own profit. These companies charge publication fees without offering the services and quality standards provided by legitimate publishing houses.

Pre-submission editing

Authors can avail pre-submission editing services for their paper to craft a well-written research manuscript for submission to international journals of their choice. Enago offers Pre-submission editing services, particularly for those authors for whom English is not their first language.

Primary author

The main author of a manuscript who has undertaken most of the research work.

Professional editors

A professional editor polishes and enhances an author’s manuscript for publication. These editors are language experts and academic scholars skilled in editing manuscripts to make them error-free.


Examining a text carefully to correct typographical and grammatical errors. Enago offers proofreading services and recommends them for native English-speaking researchers.


The process of making content (text, images, videos, etc.) available to the public. The term may also refer to a book, journal, or article that has been issued online or in print.

Publication cycle

The process involved from the conception to the dissemination of an article or a book. It normally includes planning, preparation, submission, peer review, acceptance, editing, publication, and sharing.

Publication ethics

Concepts and principles that define the right approach to academic publishing, they help ensure research integrity, and help avoid academic misconduct. They address issues such as authorship, conflicts of interest, plagiarism, fabrication, and others.

Publication support

A set of services offered to help authors get their work published whilst adopting good publication practices. These services include journal selection, pre-submission peer review, plagiarism check, editing, formatting, and submission and revision services. Enago offers all the above services under Publication support.


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Rebuttal letter

A letter provided by the authors of a manuscript in response to the reviewers‘ comments. This should be written in a polite and concise manner and should clearly address all the points raised by the referees. The rebuttal letter is a good chance to convince editors and reviewers of the quality of a work and clear up any misunderstandings.


Also known as Bibliography or Literature Cited, this is a list of the sources (articles, books, patents, and web pages) used to prepare a research/academic manuscript. This list is normally reported at the end of the document.

Rejection rate

The number of rejected manuscripts compared to the total number of papers submitted to an academic journal during a given period. Top-ranking journals usually have higher rejection rates.

Rejection shield

This is the top-tier Post-Editorial Support service of Enago which helps authors avoid manuscript rejection and improves their chances of getting published. Rejection Shield ensures that the author’s paper is ready for resubmission after facing rejection and includes editing the response to reviewer, cover letter editing, and editing of any additional content added by the author.

Rejection/Revision support

These services are valuable tools when a paper has been rejected or requires revision based on reviewer’s comments. Under these services professional editors works on the manuscript in line with the reviewer’s feedback and makes sure that the new draft adequately addresses all the reviewer comments.

Research article/Research paper

Also known as Original Article or Research Manuscript, this is a document describing a new finding, work, or subject. It is written by the same researchers who did the study and is usually peer reviewed prior to publication.

Research grant

Funding provided by an organization to support academic research. The grants are usually awarded to teams and/or individual researchers after a careful examination of the application and a rigorous selection process.

Research paper editing

Research Paper Editing services are crafted specially to cater to the manuscript's requirements in accordance with the journal guidelines and help authors to get published in quality research papers without any rejections

Research paper editors

They are skilled language experts and academic scholars who edit research papers to ensure that the language quality of the paper is up to the international publication standards. They usually have extensive experience in academic paper editing.

Research paper revision

Research Paper Revision involves searching and fixing the research content for errors, both grammatical and typographical, before re-submitting the paper for publishing to the same journal.


The main findings and observations reported in a study. The results section is one of the most important parts of a research manuscript and describes the findings of the work in a logical sequence.

Review article

A manuscript in which the authors summarize, discuss, and analyze previously published literature on a given subject. It is a secondary source of information, intended to provide a good and unbiased overview of current research on a topic.

Reviewer comments

The remarks provided by the referees during the peer-review process to help authors improve their manuscript for publication. The reviewers assess the manuscript for quality and significance of research and provide their comments to the authors in a list. This list of comments should be written in a clear and friendly manner.


Scholarly communication

The process of disseminating research findings to the academic community. It includes creating, evaluating, and publishing scholarly writings to make them available to the public.

Scientific editing

The process of improving the language, content, formatting, and writing style of a scientific manuscript prior to publication. Enago offers this service by experienced subject-matter experts.

Scientific misconduct

The violation of basic norms of conduct and ethical standards while performing or reporting scientific research. It may include data fabrication, incorrect assignment of authorship, disrespect of human or animal dignity, fraud, plagiarism, among others. Scientific misconduct is unacceptable and can be sanctioned.

Scientific writing

The process by which an author or a writer with expertise in the relevant scientific discipline drafts and prepares a scientific manuscript for publication in a journal, by providing technical inputs.

Solicited manuscript

An article submitted to the journal based on the Editor's invitation. It is usually written by an expert in a particular field. Most solicited articles appear as review papers or as invited manuscripts in special issues or books.

Specialized subject-area matching

Manuscripts are matched to highly specialized subject-area experts to optimize not only the language but also the subject matter of the manuscript.

Study limitations

The factors that limit the application, utility, and impact of a research study. These may include limitations in the design of the study, statistical or data limitations, and/or restrictions related to the methods and equipment used.

Submission support

Submission support services free authors from the hassle of understanding and meeting every journal procedure before submitting their manuscripts. Under Submission support authors can get professional assistance for all formalities including filling the necessary forms and submitting their paper to their desired journals.

Substantive editing

Also known as Content Editing, Developmental Editing, or Structural Editing, this is the process of significantly improving the content, language use, and writing style in a manuscript prior to publication. This level of editing is usually required at an early stage of a writing project. The other editing levels are copy-editing and proofreading. Substantive editing is a service offered by Enago.



Data presented in column and row format. This type of presentation is widely used in academic publishing to summarize research results.

Technical review

The careful examination and evaluation of a technical document. It is usually carried out by a subject-matter expert who verifies the accuracy and completeness of the data.


An extended work involving original inferences on a specialized subject or research area written by a candidate in order to obtain an academic degree.

Thesis editing

The process of improving the language, content, formatting, and writing style of a thesis to be submitted by a candidate for obtaining an academic degree.


The written or spoken rendition of the meaning of a particular piece of text or speech in another language. This is a service offered by Enago, under its sister concern Ulatus.

Two-Editor system

Manuscripts are reviewed by two highly skilled editors to ensure language consistency and accuracy. After a thorough edit by a PhD-qualified subject-area specialist, a second expert editor polishes and refines the paper to remove any existing ambiguities.


Unsolicited manuscript

An article submitted to a journal without invitation. Most research papers submitted to academic journals are unsolicited manuscripts.


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Word count reduction

This is a service that helps authors trim their manuscript word count up to 20%— to match the target journal-specified word limit. The word count reduction is done without tampering with the important concepts of the manuscript and keeping its essence intact.


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Sorry, we do not have any terms right now!


Sorry, we do not have any terms right now!