what are the types of authorships?
The concept of authorship is often difficult and confusing for researchers. Types of authors may be different with respect to the writing being discussed. Personal author is the single person whose independent work and thoughts have been expressed in the work, while a corporate author or a corporate is a group of people, who together as the author, putting in their efforts and thoughts into the work. However, in case of academic writing, the more familiar terms are lead author, corresponding author etc. are more familiar. To avoid the confusion, the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) recommends that authorship on a scientific manuscript be based on the following criteria:
- Substantial contributions to the conception or design of the work, or the acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data for the work
- Drafting the work or critical revision for important intellectual content
- Approval of the final version
- Agreement to be accountable for all aspects of the work to ensure accuracy and integrity of the work
The ICMJE recommends that individuals who contributed to the paper but that do not meet all four of the above criteria are acknowledged as contributors. Corresponding author is usually the author who is responsible for the whole correspondence during the paper submission, handling the revisions and re-submission of revised manuscripts up to the acceptance of the manuscripts. Some academics often get confused between the first author and the corresponding author. A first author is the person who did most of the work and took all initiatives including writing the first/second draft of the paper. In some cases, the corresponding and the first author are the same but that is not a necessary condition. In academic writing, an asterisk is used to give credit to corresponding authors. In some cases, asterisks (*) also denote the co-author or authors. These co-authors should be listed below the title in a clear format.
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