Many academics have been pawned by predatory elements in scholarly publishing (em-dash) predatory journals or conferences. These appear to be similar to legitimate academic journals or conferences and exploit the need of academics to publish and share their work. An invite to present at an international conference suggests that your work has significance and impact in the relevant research area. It is one of the parameters in assessing research profile when deciding on promotion or tenure of researchers. These conference organizers often dupe attendees by charging a huge amount of fees. Predatory conferences now outnumber legitimate conferences.